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SARS-COV2: COVID19 CORONA VIRUS

Everyone has a responsibility to prevent the spread and contain the infection…. It’s highly important to break the chain of transmission and thereby contain the infection and save lives as the disease is increasingly spreading and claiming lives across the globe.

Things to ponder about…

  1. Coronavirus infection is highly contagious and can affect people of all ages.
  2. The honorable Prime Minister has strongly urged fellow Indians to maintain social distancing or self-isolation, as it is the only way left with us to stop the transmission
  3. As per WHO1, everyone needs to follow the precautionary measures such as
    • Frequent handwashing
    • Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth
    • Maintain social distancing
    • Practicing good respiratory hygiene
  4. COVID-19 Illness is usually mild in children and young adults, and most of the patients recover with supportive care. However, older adults and people with other medical conditions (high blood pressure, heart disease, lung disease, cancer or diabetes) are at higher risk of developing a serious disease

The third level of protection against coronavirus: An Ayurvedic hypothesis by Dr. Prashant Raghavan

Either of the following herbs can be kept inside the mouth during exposure to a high-risk area or by the group of people at high risks such as health care providers, caretakers, and doctors.

  • Hard tablets of Triphala
  • The stem of yastimadhu (Licorice) (1inch)
  • Neem stem cuttings (1inch)

These herbs have tremendous potential to prevent or reduce the risk of serious viral infections that affects the respiratory system.

How to use

  1. Triphala formulations
    [Triphala - Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis), black myrobalan (Terminalia chebula), belleric myrobalan (Terminalia bellirica): 2:3:1]
    • Made into a hard tablet [slow-dissolving tablets that stay in the mouth for longer duration]
    • Powder form
  2. Sweetwood (Licorice/ Glycyrrhiza glabra) formulation
    1. It should be crushed by keeping the fibrous part intact so that the active ingredient(antiviral) will be released slowly.
    Sweetwood has been used in China as an antiviral remedy for coronavirus.

Pathogenesis of Coronavirus based on SARS-COV1 and MERS

The virion (infected virus particle) attaches to the epithelium of salivary gland ducts through ACE2 receptors and slowly drift towards the lungs causing infection2. When the coronavirus comes in contact with the gastric fire it loses its lipid layer and thus gets less virulent3.

Discussion

  • Triphala
    The Triphala4 has antibacterial and antiviral5 properties
    Anti-bacterial properties6 against Streptococcus mutans (a gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium mostly found between adjacent teeth or in the deep crevices on occlusal of teeth) can be elicited by The antimicrobial 12hr test :
    1. Smear Triphala powder inside your mouth, on the pallet, gums, cheeks
    2. Then close your mouth properly and go to sleep.
    3. The following day morning you feel that your mouth is fresh as if you have done your morning brushing.
    It is known that corona spread happens through the droplets (through the saliva or nasal secretions). We aim to stop the growth of the virus in the epithelium of the salivary gland duct especially in people with a mild infection, thereby reducing the transmission of the disease.
    The sourness of gooseberry in Triphala will lead to extra salivation which gets swallowed in every 20secs.
  • Licorice possesses antiviral Property and acts by inhibiting virus replication, preventing viral attachment or enhancing host cell activity7

It is also physical protection that when you have something in the mouth, you may not touch your face or lips and your cough /sneeze reflex will be dampened. This will reduce the viral spread

1 Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public. Accessed on 3-4-2020

2 Li Liu, Qiang Wei, Xavier Alvarez, Haibo Wang, Yanhua Du, Hua Zhu, Hong Jiang, Jingying Zhou, Pokman Lam, Linqi Zhang, Andrew Lackner, Chuan Qin, Zhiwei Chen et al. Epithelial Cells Lining Salivary Gland Ducts Are Early Target Cells of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in the Upper Respiratory Tracts of Rhesus Macaques. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Apr. 2011, p. 4025–4030

3 Jie Zhou, Cun Li, Guangyu Zhao, Hin Chu, Dong Wang, Helen Hoi-Ning Yan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Lei Wen, Bosco Ho-Yin Wong, Xiaoyu Zhao, Man Chun Chiu, Dong Yang, Yixin Wang, Rex K. H. Au-Yeung, Ivy Hau-Yee Chan, Shihui Sun, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Kelvin Kai-Wang To, Ziad A. Memish, Victor M. Corman, Christian Drosten, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Yusen Zhou, Suet Yi Leung, Kwok-Yung Yuen et al. Human intestinal tract serves as an alternative infection route for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Science Advances 15 Nov 2017: Vol. 3, no. 11, eaao4966

4 Ruchika Gupta, BR Chandrashekar, Pankaj Goel, Vrinda Saxena, Sudheer Hongal, Manish Jain, Rahul Ganavadiya Antimicrobial efficacy of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Triphala on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro study ,Journal of Young Pharmacists Vol 6 ,ssue 3 ,Jul-Sep 2014

5 T G Kim 1 , S Y Kang, K K Jung, J H Kang, E Lee, H M Han, S H Kim et al. Antiviral Activities of Extracts Isolated From Terminalis Chebula Retz., Sanguisorba Officinalis L., Rubus Coreanus Miq. And Rheum Palmatum L. Against Hepatitis B Virus. Phytother Res , 15 (8), 718-20 Dec 2001

6 Aleksandra Tarasiuk, Paula Mosińska, and Jakub Fichna et al. Triphala: current applications and new perspectives on the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Chin Med. 2018; 13: 39.

7 Liqiang Wang, Rui Yang, Bochuan Yuan, Ying Liu, and Chunsheng Liu et al. The antiviral and antimicrobial activities of licorice, a widely-used Chinese herb. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2015 Jul; 5(4): 310–315.